The wet weights of all three muscles (soleus, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius) were smallest in sedentary animals treated with gum arabic (Sed-C) and largest in exercised animals treated with mesterolone (Ex-M) ( Table 3 ). The effect of mesterolone in sedentary mice (Sed-C vs. Sed-M) was stronger than in exercised mice (Ex-C vs. Ex-M) suggesting exercise blunted the steroid effect. The greatest impact of mesterolone on muscle weight, both in sedentary and exercised mice, was in TA (39% and 20% increase, respectively) and the smallest impact in GAS (16% and 12%, respectively) ( Table 3 ). The effect of exercise per se in promoting a significant increase in MW was comparable among the muscles and was stronger than induced by mesterolone (with the exception of TA: compare Ex-C vs. Sed-C and Sed-M vs. Sed-C). Two-way ANOVA showed that there was no interaction between mesterolone and exercise for MW. Exercise plus mesterolone appeared to have an additive effect, such that the largest muscle wet weights were obtained by the Ex-M group for all three muscles.
The development of gynecomastia or feminization of the breast tissue in males is possible with anabolic steroids. This is due to an excess of estrogen being present in the body, through a process known as "aromatization" whereby androgens like testosterone are converted to estrogen. This excess estrogen then finds its way to the receptors in breast tissue and binds to them. This results in the possibility of female-like breast tissue, which must sometimes be removed by surgery. Most athletes experience itchiness of the nipples, followed by pain. Since this develops over several days, usually, the athlete has more than enough time to discontinue the use of the compounds he´s taking, or to attempt to counteract the breast tissue development while remaining on the cycle. The two most common ways to counteract gynecomastia are the use an anti-estrogen like Nolvadex or Clomiphene Citrate (best taken post-cycle) or Letrozole, a very strong Aromatase Inhibitor (AI)/anti-estrogenic compound is employed during cycle to effectively starve the growth of nourishing estrogen.
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