Â© 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Background Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory disorder of the esophagus defined by eosinophil infiltration and tissue remodeling with resulting symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) promotes inflammation through upregulation of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase midline-1 (MID1), which binds to and deactivates the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2Ac, resulting in increased nuclear factor Â¿B activation. Objective We sought to elucidate the role of TRAIL in EoE. Methods We used Aspergillus fumigatus to induce EoE in TRAIL-sufficient (wild-type) and TRAIL-deficient (TRAIL -/- ) mice and targeted MID1 in the esophagus with small interfering RNA. We also treated mice with recombinant thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and TRAIL. Results TRAIL deficiency and MID1 silencing with small interfering RNA reduced esophageal eosinophil and mast cell numbers and protected against esophageal circumference enlargement, muscularis externa thickening, and collagen deposition. MID1 expression and nuclear factor Â¿B activation were reduced in TRAIL -/- mice, whereas protein phosphatase 2Ac levels were increased compared with those seen in wild-type control mice. This was associated with reduced expression of CCL24, CCL11, CCL20, IL-5, IL-13, IL-25, TGFB, and TSLP. Treatment with TSLP reconstituted hallmark features of EoE in TRAIL -/- mice and recombinant TRAIL induced esophageal TSLP expression in vivo in the absence of allergen. Post hoc analysis of gene array data demonstrated significant upregulation of TRAIL and MID1 in a cohort of children with EoE compared with that seen in controls. Conclusion TRAIL regulates MID1 and TSLP, inflammation, fibrosis, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and expression of inflammatory effector chemokines and cytokines in experimental EoE.
Synovial biopsy specimens from 20 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were subjected to quantitative analysis for several parameters of inflammation and for enumeration of synovial tissue mast cells. Strong positive correlations were found between numbers of mast cells per cubic millimeter of synovial tissue and the following synovial tissue parameters: inflammatory index (a quantification of lymphocytic infiltration), Leu-3a grade (T helper/inducer lymphocytes), Leu-1 grade (T lymphocyte), and plasma cell grade. A strong negative correlation was found between the synovial mast cell count and the extent of sublining layer fibrin deposition. Correlations between synovial mast cell count and Leu-2a grade, ratio of Leu-3a grade:Leu-2a grade, OKM1 grade, HLA-DR grade, and lining layer thickness grade did not reach statistical significance. In addition, we obtained synovial specimens from 6 of the patients both before and after long-term therapy with oral methotrexate and from 3 of the patients before, and 1 week after, an intraarticular injection of steroid. The 3 patients who had an intraarticular steroid injection showed a 67-96% decrease in the number of synovial tissue mast cells; there was no significant change in the number of synovial mast cells in the tissues of the 6 patients who received oral methotrexate. These observations are the first documentation of a quantitative relationship between the number of mast cells and the number and phenotypic profile of infiltrating lymphocytes in an inflamed tissue, which in this case, is human synovium. Our findings suggest that mast cells are involved in the pathologic interactions in rheumatoid arthritis and might play a role in the early phases of exacerbations of disease activity.
Some pathologists subclassify grade 2 mast cells as high grade 2 or low grade 2 mast cell tumors; high grade 2 tumors behave like grade 3 tumors and low grade 2 mast cell tumors behave like grade 1 tumors. Beware that grading mast cell tumors is very subjective. In one study, mast cell tumors were graded by a group of pathologists and they commonly disagreed upon the grade of the tumors. A much better testing method of determining the how malignant or benign a mast cell tumor will behave is a proliferative study. This includes PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), AgNOR (agyrophilc nuclear oganizing regions), and Ki67. Tyrosine kinase receptors (a receptor for mast cell growth factor) is also important and tests related to this include cKIT mutations and KIT staining patterns. All of these tests in the panel are important, however cKIT mutations are very dangerous and the Ki67 also seems to be very important. These tests are more expensive than standard testing (histopathology), but they seem to be worthwhile.